THE AARD WOLF. 413 of the organs of reproduction have led to the belief that a Hyaena changes its sex every year. Its almost human-sounding howls are supposed to be a deliberate trap for the unwary traveller. There is also a legend that in the eye of the Hyaena is a stone which if placed under the tongue of a man endows him with the gift of prophecy. Proteles presents many resemblances to the Hyaenas, but also certain differences ; by many it is placed in a separate family. There is but one species, P. cristata, the Aard Wolf of South Africa. In outward aspect it is very Hyaena-like., the coat being striped, and the ears, though longer, resembling those of a Hyaena. There is also a mane. There are, however, five toes on the fore- feet. The teeth are feebler, particularly the molars, which are also reduced in number. The skull,, as in Hyaena, has no alisphenoid canal, but the bulla tympani is divided by a septum. The animal seems to feed largely upon insects, particularly Termites, and also upon carrion.1 Of extinct Hyaenoids Ictitherium seems to be transitional between them and the Viverridae. Its dentition, •§-, -J-, -J-, -J, is that of a "Viverrid, and the feet are five-toed. The upper carnassial tooth, however, is like that of Hyaena in having a strong inner cusp. Other extinct genera of Hyaenas are Lycyaena, and Hyaenictis. The genus Hyaena itself goes back as far as to the Miocene, and occurred in Europe until the Pleistocene. The Ca^ve Hyaena of this country seems to be indistinguishable from Orocuta maculata, though it has received the name of H, spelaea. Fam. 5. Canidae.2—This family cannot be divided into more than five genera, and is universally distributed with the exception of ISTew Zealand. The auditory bulla is smooth and rounded, and lias internally a very incomplete septum, extending through about one-fourth or one-third of the cavity. The meatus has a fairly prominent under lip. The paroecipital process is long and promi- nent. The mastoid is distinct, though "but slightly developed. The glenoid foramen is large; the condyloid foramen is con- spicuous, and the carotid canal is deep within the foramen lacerum posterius. The last three characters are Bear-like; the 1 Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1869, p. 457. a For a general account of the Canidae see Bfivart, A Monograph of the London, 1890.